Associations of Sarcopenia Definitions, and Their Components, With the Incidence of Recurrent Falling and Fractures: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

ABSTRACT. Background: The aim was to investigate the associations of sarcopenia as defined by European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project, and their underlying components, with the incidence of recurrent falling and fractures. Methods: In 498 older men and women (mean age = 75.2 [SD = 6.4]) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), the sarcopenia components lean mass (DXA), handgrip strength (handheld dynamometer), and gait speed were measured. Data on falls (3-year follow-up) and fractures (10-year follow-up) were collected. Cox regression analyses were performed, adjusting for age, sex, and total body fat. Results: Recurrent falling occurred in 130 persons and 60 persons experienced a fracture during follow-up. Participants who were identified as sarcopenic based on the FNIH definitions had a more than 2-fold increased risk to become a recurrent faller. There was no association between sarcopenia based on the EWGSOP definition and incidence of recurrent falling. When the sarcopenia components were examined individually, only a low grip strength was associated with incidence of recurrent falling, independent of a low lean mass or a slow gait speed. Sarcopenia according to both definitions was not associated with incident fractures, which may be caused by low statistical power. Conclusion: Sarcopenia according to the FNIH definitions, but not according to the EWGSOP definition was associated with recurrent falling. When examining the individual components, only a low grip strength was independently associated with recurrent falling. No associations between sarcopenia with incidence of fractures were found.